Mounting tensions cause setbacks for the Bolsheviks

julyb

1917 was characterized by massive change within Russia. Two revolutions took place in this year: the February revolution and the October Revolution. The February Revolution was triggered by riots over food shortages and bread prices on International Women’s Day. The revolution resulted in Tsar Nicolas II’s abdication, which officially put an end to the Romanov dynasty. The October Revolution resulted in the Bolsheviks seizing power. However, this was not so easily accomplished. In July, between the two revolutions, a series of demonstrations called the “July Days” took place in Petrograd. The violent results of these demonstrations were used to discredit the Bolsheviks. Lenin fled to Finland in the aftermath, and other prominent leaders, including Trotsky, were arrested.

The July Days began on July 3, 1917. The protesters were predominantly made up of factory workers, sailors, and soldiers. The uprisings were fueled by frustrations with the government ministers and opposition to the ongoing war (J. Llewellyn et al). Most accounts suggest that the demonstrations were spontaneous. Many of the demonstrators were angry that the Soviets had not yet taken power (Freeze, 286). Neither Bolshevik nor Soviet leaders were willing to lead a seizure of power during the time of the uprisings. The Provisional government was able to quell the rebellion with their loyal troops. The above image shows protesters scattering after the Provisional Government’s troops opened fire.

Nikolai Sukhanov, a Menshevik, recorded his account of the July Days in his book The Russian Revolution, 1917: A Personal Record. Sukhanov compared the disorder in the city to the chaos of the February revolution. Sukhanov remarked that while the workers of Petrograd were more organized than they were in February, the demonstrations lacked a greater degree of “consciousness, discipline, or order.” Sukhanov also discussed Lenin’s indecisiveness during the July Days. While reading the account, it seems that the outcome could have turned out differently had Lenin taken a stronger leadership role. While discussing Lenin’s encounter with the demonstrators from Kronstadt, Sukhanov said: “He didn’t demand any concrete action from the impressive force standing in front of him; he didn’t even call on his audience to continue the street demonstrations-even though that audience had just proved its readiness for battle by the troublesome journey from Kronstadt to Petersburg.” However, others suggest that Lenin believed that unplanned uprisings were likely to fail (J. Llewellyn et al). Sukanov ended his account of the July Days by expressing admiration for the frustration and passion exhibited by the proletariat during the demonstrations.

The Provisional Government was able to suppress the demonstrations, but they could not eliminate the general lack of confidence in their ability to solve the mounting problems within Russia (Freeze, 286). However, the government was able to blame the disorder on the Bolsheviks for some time, which allowed them to restore the perception of order and authority (Freeze, 286). For instance, a report by the public prosecutor from July 22, 1917, denied that the July uprisings were spontaneous. Instead the prosecutor claimed that the demonstrations were orchestrated by Bolshevik leaders. The report also suggested that Lenin and other leaders were German spies, and published anti-war propaganda to aid the Germans in the war.

The public prosecutor’s report hurt the Bolshevik’s image. After the July Days, it seemed that the Bolsheviks were finished. However, this could only buy the government time, as it was still incapable of fixing the ever-present issues within Russia. In a matter of three months the Bolsheviks would be able to seize power in the legendary October Revolution.

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The post received a “red star” award from the editorial team.

Image:

K. Bulla: Petrograd, July 4 1917 (1917). Retrieved from: 17 Moments in Soviet History

Sources:

Freeze, G. L. (2009). Russia: A History. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 286.

J. Llewellyn et al, “The July days” at Alpha History, http://alphahistory.com/russianrevolution/july-days/, 2014, accessed [2/11/18].

N. N. Sukhanov, The Russian Revolution, 1917: A Personal Record (London: Oxford University Press, 1955), pp. 444-446. Retrieved from: 17 Moments in Soviet History

Robert Paul Browder and Alexander F. Kerensky, eds., The Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961), pp. 1373-76. Retrieved from: 17 Moments in Soviet History

 

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11 thoughts on “Mounting tensions cause setbacks for the Bolsheviks

  1. The picture you choose was perfect for your description of the event. I also enjoyed how you floated the question of what could have been if the Bolsheviks or Lenin were able to have stronger leader ship and seize control in the moment. Do you think if the soviets or Bolsheviks had been able to use this opportunity to seize power? Or if a different outcome would have occurred if Lenin had put forth stringer leadership?

    Liked by 1 person

    1. It’s difficult to know if a seizure of power could have happened for sure, but Sukhanov’s account made it seem like there was significant manpower (particularly when he discusses the Kronstadt workers). I think it would probably be difficult to take power without proper organization. It’s interesting to speculate nonetheless!

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  2. Justin Kane

    I definitely enjoyed the use of the picture to go along with your description and detail of the events! I feel like it made it more real to me than just reading words off a page. Instead it brought it to life!

    Liked by 1 person

  3. The “July Days” are complicated and I really like how you focused on Sukhanov’s memoir and point out that the demonstrations (and their aftermath) meant different things to different people (and audiences). Nice.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Like everyone else I really enjoyed the photo you put into your blog post. You focused part of your post onto how the July Days were remembered by Sukhanov in his memoirs, and this primary source let know how it was remembered by someone who witnessed it and how it compared to other revolutions he had seen.

    Like

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